International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: "Introduction"

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia


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A
Aalar
Aaron
Aaronites
Aaron's Rod
Ab (1)
Ab (2)
Abacuc
Abaddon
Abadias
Abagarus
Abagtha
Abanah
Abarim
Abase
Abate
Abba
Abda
Abdeel
Abdi
Abdias
Abdiel
Abdon (1)
Abdon (2)
Abed-Nego
Abel (1)
Abel (2)
Abel-Beth-Maacah
Abel-Cheramim
Abel-Maim
Abel-Meholah
Abel-Mizraim
Abel-Shittim
Abez
Abgar; Abgarus; Abagarus
Abhor

Welcome to the 'International Standard Bible Encyclopedia' on StudyLight.org!
Containing 9,448 entries cross-referenced and cross-linked to other resources on StudyLight.org, this resource can be classified as a required reference book for any good study library.
This practical, authoritative, and complete classic reference encyclopedia explains every significant word in the Bible and Apocrypha. It gives detailed information on the language and literature of Bible lands, and the historical and religious environments of the people of the Bible in articles by nearly 200 scholars.
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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: "Introduction"

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia


Browse by:     A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z

A
Aalar
Aaron
Aaronites
Aaron's Rod
Ab (1)
Ab (2)
Abacuc
Abaddon
Abadias
Abagarus
Abagtha
Abanah
Abarim
Abase
Abate
Abba
Abda
Abdeel
Abdi
Abdias
Abdiel
Abdon (1)
Abdon (2)
Abed-Nego
Abel (1)
Abel (2)
Abel-Beth-Maacah
Abel-Cheramim
Abel-Maim
Abel-Meholah
Abel-Mizraim
Abel-Shittim
Abez
Abgar; Abgarus; Abagarus
Abhor

Welcome to the 'International Standard Bible Encyclopedia' on StudyLight.org!
Containing 9,448 entries cross-referenced and cross-linked to other resources on StudyLight.org, this resource can be classified as a required reference book for any good study library.
This practical, authoritative, and complete classic reference encyclopedia explains every significant word in the Bible and Apocrypha. It gives detailed information on the language and literature of Bible lands, and the historical and religious environments of the people of the Bible in articles by nearly 200 scholars.
All scripture references and reference to other entries within the text have been linked. To use this resource to it's full potential, follow all the links presented within the text of the entry you are reading.
StudyLight relies on cutting-edge technology to enhance your experience through our 'AutoSuggest' feature. To activate this feature you must be using: Apple SafariGoogle Chrome 5Firefox 3Opera 9 andInternet Explorer 7 or a more recent version of any of these. This feature allows you to start typing you query in the search box. Beginning with the second letter typed, our system will display a drop-down list of suggestions that are found in this resource. Click an entry displayed in the drop-down box and then the 'find' button to view that entry.
If you find a link that doesn't work correctly, please use our convenient contact form. Please tell us the reference work title, entry title and/or number (this can be found in the address line), and a brief description of the error found. We will review and make corrections where needed.
You can also use this form if you have any suggestions about how to improve the usability of this resource.

Jewish-Christian Devotional: ADAR II 01


Voice of the Lord

A New Covenant, the essence of which is not a written text but the Spirit. For the written text brings death, but the Spirit gives life (2 Corinthians 3:6).

Jewish Date
ADAR II
01
It is a common fault to separate what God unites.

 This distorts his revelation. Scripture tells us much about the Word and the Spirit. 

"For out of Tziyon [Zion] will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim [Jerusalem]" (Isaiah 2:3). 

The Word was breathed out by God through theRuach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) in order that we might receive training in righteousness (2 Timothy 3:16-17). 

Holy men of old spoke the Word as they were "moved by the Ruach HaKodesh" (2 Peter 1:21). Today's Scripture passage indicates that when we separate the Word from theRuach (Spirit), and seek to follow him by our own efforts, we become engaged in the practice of legalism; for "the written text brings death."

 On the other hand, when we take our focus from the Word, we end up floundering in subjective error and imbalance. 

Human beings cannot be transformed or live a life that is pleasing to God without his Word. God wants us to depend on the Ruach and to know his presence, so that the Word might be fully effective in us. 

By meditating on the Word and by submitting our lives to it, we find ourselves transformed by the power of theRuach. 

The balance must be struck for us to grow strong in the Messiah. We "know what God wants and will agree that what he wants is good, satisfying and able to succeed" (Romans 12:2).


...be fully committed to living by God's Word and knowing the power of his Ruach.

Today in Christian History "March 3"

Today in Christian History

March 3

1547
The Seventh Session of the Council of Trent declared: 'If anyone says that one baptized cannot, even if he wishes, lose grace, however much he may sin, unless he is unwilling to believe, let him be anathema.'
1744
Colonial missionary to the American Indians, David Brainerd wrote in his journal: 'In the morning, spent an hour in prayer. Prayer was so sweet an exercise to me that I knew not how to cease, lest I lose the spirit of prayer.'
1931
American linguistic pioneer Frank Laubach wrote in a letter: 'If we only let God have his full chance he will break our hearts with the glory of his revelation. That is the privilege which the preacher can have. It is his business to look into the very face of God until he aches with bliss.'
1950
Trappist monk Thomas Merton wrote in "Sign of Jonas": 'The Christian life...is a continual discovery of Christ in new and unexpected places. And these discoveries are sometimes most profitable when you find him in something you had tended to overlook or even despise.'
1959
By a vote taken in both bodies, the Unitarian Church and the Universalist Church, along with their fellowships -- the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged into a single denomination.

Heresies of the Church: " Adelphians"


Heresies of the Church Down Thru the Ages

Adelphians

Additional Links
An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360. They denied that the Sacraments give grace and declared that the only spiritual power is prayer. 

Prayer, they said, drives out the evil spirit and brings into the soul the Holy Spirit, and thus unites the soul to God and gives perfect control over the passions. 

The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civil customs of a place only in order to escape persecution. 

They said that after a period of constant prayer they saw the Trinity; that the Three Divine Persons became one and dwelt within them; and that they were then able to stamp upon the evil spirits that they saw prowling about the world. 

On account of their belief in their possession by the Holy Spirit, they were called Enthusiasts (Greek: enthous, full of the god).

 They were also called "Praying Folk" or Euchites from the Greek translation (euchomai, pray), of their Oriental name.

 In some places in later centuries they were identified with the Marcianists because they held some of the same doctrines.

 Their first leader, Adelphius, also gave his name to the sect, sometimes called Adelphians. 

They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus. 

In Armenia and Syria they were accused of immorality, were called "The Filthy," and were banished. They revived under the name of Bogomili but perished in the 9th century.

Early Christian Biography: "Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis"


A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography

Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis

Additional Links


Abercius ( Ἀβέρκιος, Ἀουίρκιος, Ἀουέρκιος, etc.; Lat. Avircius, or Avercius; on the form and origin, see Ramsay, Expositor , ix. (3rd ser.), pp. 268, 394, and Zahn, art. "Avercius," Realencyclopädie für protest. 

Theol. und Kirche , Hauck). 

The Life of the saint, described as bp. of Hierapolis in Phrygia in the time of M. Aurelius and L. Verus, as given by Symeon Metaphrastes and in the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum , Oct. 22, is full of worthless and fantastic tales. 

But the epitaph which the Acts incorporate, placed, according to the story, on the altar brought from Rome by the demon whom the saint had driven out of the emperor's daughter, is of great value, and the discovery of some of the actual fragments of the inscription may well be called "a romance of archaeology." 

For this rediscovery our thanks are due to the rich labours of Prof. Ramsay. 

The fact that Abercius was described as bp. of Hierapolis at the time mentioned above had contributed to hesitation as to the genuineness of the epitaph.

 But Ramsay (Bulletin de correspondance hellénique , Juillet 1882) pointed out that Hiera polis had been frequently confounded with Hiero polis; and he also published in the same journal a metrical and early Christian epitaph of a certain Alexander (A. D. 216), discovered at Hiero polis, and evidently copied from the epitaph of Abercius, as given in his Life . 

As to the copying, there can be no doubt, for the third line of the epitaph of Alexander, son of Antonius, will not scan, owing to the substitution of his name for that of Abercius (Lightfoot, Apost. Fathers 2 , i. p. 479; Headlam in Authority and Archaeology , pp. 307 ff., 1899). 

Ramsay's attention being drawn to the earlier epitaph, he collected various topographical notices in theLife of the saint, which pointed to Hier o polis, near Synnada (not Hiera polis on the Maeander), and he further established the case for the former by finding, in 1883, in the bath-room at some hot springs near Hiero polis, a small portion of the epitaph of Abercius himself on the fragment of an altar-shaped tomb; the hot springs in their position near the city exactly correspond with the position of the hot springs described in the Life . 

We have thus fortunately a threefold help in reconstructing the text of the whole epitaph—(1) the text in the Life ; (2) the rediscovered fragments in the stone; (3) the epitaph on the tomb of Alexander.

There is much to be said for the identification of Abercius with the Avircius Marcellus (Eus. H. E. v. 16) to whom the extracts of the anonymous writer against Montanus are dedicated. 

We cannot be sure as to the date of these extracts, but there is reason to place them towards the close of the reign of Commodus, 180–192, and the epitaph of Abercius must at least have been earlier than 216, the date of the epitaph of Alexander. 

But the writer of the extracts addresses the person to whom he dedicates his work as a person of authority, although he does not style him a bishop (but see Lightfoot, u.s. p. 483), who had urged him a very long time ago to write on the subject. 

Avircius Marcellus might therefore have well flourished in the reign of M. Aurelius, and might have visited Rome at the time mentioned in the legend, A.D. 163. 

Further, in the extracts mention is made by the writer of one Zoticus of Otrous, his "fellow-presbyter," and Otrous was in the neighbourhood of this Hieropolis (for the identification, see further Lightfoot and Zahn, u.s. ; Headlam, u.s. ; Ramsay, Expositor , ix. (3rd ser.), p. 394). 

Against the attempt of Ficker to prove that the epitaph was heathen, Sitzungsberichte d. Berl. Akad. 1895, pp. 87–112, and that of Harnack, Texte und Untersuchungen , xii. 4b , p. 21, to class it as partly heathen and partly Christian, see Zahn, u.s. , and further in Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift , 1895, pp. 863–886; also the criticism of Ramsay, quoted by Headlam, u.s. 

Both external and internal evidence are in favour of a Christian origin, and we have in this epitaph what Ramsay describes, C. R. E. pp. 437 ff., as "a testimony, brief, clear, emphatic, of the truth for which Avircius had contended—the one great figure on the Catholic side produced by the Phrygian church during this period," a man whose wide experience of men and cities might in itself have well marked him out as such a champion. 

The faithful, i.e. the sacred writings, the Sacraments of Holy Baptism and Holy Communion, the miraculous birth of our Lord (the most probable reference of παρθένος ἁγνή ), His omnipresent and omniscient energy, the fellowship of the members of the church, not only in Rome but elsewhere—all these (together with the mixed cup, wine and water; the prayer for the departed; the symbolic ΙΧΘΥΣ, one of its earliest instances) have a place in the picture of early Christian usage and belief gained from this one epitaph; however widely Abercius travelled, to the far East or West, the same picture, he assures us, met his gaze. 

We thus recover an instructive and enduring monument of Christian life in the 2nd cent., all the more remarkable because it is presented to us, not in any systematic form, but as the natural and simple expression of a pure and devout soul. For full literature, see Zahn, u.s. ; for the development of the legend from the facts mentioned in the epitaph, and for the reconstruction of the text by Lightfoot and Ramsay, see three articles by the latter in Expositor, ix. (3rd ser.), also Ramsay's Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia , ii. 722. In addition to literature above, cf. art. by Lightfoot in Expositor , i. (3rd ser.), pp. 3 ff.; and Farrar, Lives of the Fathers , i. pp. 10 ff. Prof. V. Bartlet discusses Harnack's hypothesis in the Critical Review , April 1896, and regards it as at present holding the field; though he finds Harnack's elimination of any reference to Paul the Apostle in the inscription quite unintelligible. Even Schmiedel (Encycl. Bibl. ii. 1778) refers unhesitatingly to the inscription as Christian. See futher Dr. Swete's art. J. T. S. July 1907, p. 502, on Avircius and prayers for the departed.

The following is a translation of the epitaph:

"Citizen of a chosen city I have made this (tomb) in my lifetime, that I may have here before the eyes of men ( φανερῶς v.l. καιρῷ ) a resting-place for my body—Avircius by name, a disciple of the pure Shepherd, who on the mountains and plains feedeth the flocks of His sheep, who hath eyes large and beholding all things. 

For He was my Teacher, teaching me (διδάσκων, so Ramsay, omitted by Zahn) the faithful writings; who sent me to Rome to behold the King ( βασιλῆαν, so Ramsay, but Lightfootβασίληαν, Zahn, βασιλῆ ἀναθρῆσαι ), and to see the Queen in golden robes and golden sandals, and there, too, I saw a people bearing a shining seal (a reference to Baptism). 

And I saw the plain of Syria and all its cities, even Nisibis, having crossed the Euphrates, and everywhere I had fellow-worshippers (συνομήθεις, so Lightfoot and Ramsay; συνοδίτην , Zahn, referring to Paul). With Paul in my hands I followed (i.e. the writings of Paul, Ramsay; but Lightfoot and Di Rossi apparently 'with Paul as my comrade'; whilst Zahn conjectures ἔποχον , or rather ἐπ᾿ ὀχῶν instead of ἑπόμην ), while Faith everywhere led the way, and everywhere placed before me food, the Fish from the fountain, mighty, pure, which a spotless Virgin grasped (Ramsay refers to the Virgin Mary, but see also Lightfoot and Farrar).

And this she (i.e. Faith) gave to the friends to eat continually, having excellent wine, giving the mixed cup with bread. These words, I, Avircius, standing by, bade to be thus written; I was in fact in my seventy-second year. 

On seeing this let everyone who thinks with him ( i.e. who is also an anti-Montanist, so Ramsay; Lightfoot and Farrar simply 'fellow Christian') pray for him ( i.e. Avircius). But no one shall place another in my tomb, but if so, he shall pay 2000 gold pieces to the Romans, and 1000 gold pieces to my excellent fatherland Hierapolis " (so Ramsay, vide Expositor , ix. 3rd ser. p. 271, for a justification of this reading).

[R.J.K.]

The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge : "Genesis overview"


Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Genesis overview

The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of each of which it presents a summary, but astonishingly minute and detailed accounts. 

From this Book, almost all the ancient philosophers, astronomers, chronologists, and historians have taken their respective data; and all the modern improvements and accurate discoveries in different arts and sciences, have only served to confirm the facts detailed by Moses, and to shew, that all the ancient writers on these subjects have approached, or receded from, truth and the phenomena of Nature, in exactly the same proportion as they have followed or receded from, the Mosaic history. 

The great fact of the deluge is fully confirmed by the fossilised remains in every quarter of the globe. 

Add to this, that general traditions of the deluge have been traced among the Egyptians, Chinese, Japanese, Hindoos, Burmans, ancient Goths and Druids, Mexicans, Peruvians, Brazilians, North American Indians, Greenlanders, Otaheiteans, Sandwich Islanders, and almost every nation under heaven; while the allegorical turgidity of these distorted traditions sufficiently distinguishes them from the unadorned simplicity of the Mosaic narrative.

 In fine, without this history the world would be in comparative darkness, not knowing whence it came, nor whither it goeth. In the first page, a child may learn more in an hour, than all the philosophers in the world learned without it in a thousand years. 

(The original publisher remembers these words addressed to him and other boys in the year 1780, by his excellent tutor, the later Rev. John Ryland, of Northampton.)

'Thru the Bible' with Dr. J. Vernon McGee: " GENESIS -Chapter One -Page ONE "

GENESIS -Chapter One -Page ONE

READING TO KNOW: "Mere Christianity #1 [The Law Of Human Nature] " -C.S.Lewis



Book I - 


Right And Wrong As A Clue To The Meaning Of The Universe

1. The Law Of Human Nature

Every one has heard people quarrelling. Sometimes it sounds funny and sometimes it sounds merely

unpleasant; but however it sounds, I believe we can learn something very important from listening to

the kind of things they say. They say things like this: "How'd you like it if anyone did the same to

you?"—"That's my seat, I was there first"—"Leave him alone, he isn't doing you any harm"— "Why

should you shove in first?"—"Give me a bit of your orange, I gave you a bit of mine"—"Come on, you

promised." People say things like that every day, educated people as well as uneducated, and children

as well as grown-ups.

Now what interests me about all these remarks is that the man who makes diem is not merely saying

that the other man's behaviour does not happen to please him. He is appealing to some kind of standard

of behaviour which he expects the other man to know about. And the other man very seldom replies:

"To hell with your standard." Nearly always he tries to make out that what he has been doing does not

really go against the standard, or that if it does there is some special excuse. He pretends there is some

special reason in this particular case why the person who took the seat first should not keep it, or that

things were quite different when he was given the bit of orange, or that something has turned up which

lets him off keeping his promise.

It looks, in fact, very much as if both parties had in mind some kind of Law or Rule of fair play or

decent behaviour or morality or whatever you like to call it, about which they really agreed. And they

have. If they had not, they might, of course, fight like animals, but they could not quarrel in the human

sense of the word. Quarrelling means trying to show that the other man is in the wrong. And there

would be no sense in trying to do that unless you and he had some sort of agreement as to what Right

and Wrong are; just as there would be no sense in saying that a footballer had committed a foul unless

there was some agreement about the rules of football.

Now this Law or Rule about Right and Wrong used to be called the Law of Nature. Nowadays, when

we talk of the "laws of nature" we usually mean things like gravitation, or heredity, or the laws of

chemistry. But when the older thinkers called the Law of Right and Wrong "the Law of Nature," they

really meant the Law of Human Nature. The idea was that, just as all bodies are governed by the law

of gravitation and organisms by biological laws, so the creature called man also had his law—with this

great difference, that a body could not choose whether it obeyed

READING TO KNOW: "Mere Christianity - Cover " -C.S.Lewis


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