LastGeneration: "Mossad Superman Meir Dagan" slowed Iran's nuclear plans

Al Ahram, Cairo: "Mossad Superman Meir Dagan" slowed Iran's nuclear plans

DEBKAfile Special Report

January 16, 2010, 1:12 PM (GMT+02:00)

Meir Dagan in third term as Mossad chief

The Egyptian media rarely have a good word to say about Israel or Israelis, but Saturday, Jan. 16, the semi-official Al Ahram, glowingly profiled the director of the Mossad external intelligence agency, Meir Dagan, in epic terms as a hero who singlehandedly delayed Iran's advance on a nuclear weapon by "several years," scaled down "Syria's military capabilities" and may have been behind last week's assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Mehsud Ali-Mohammadi in North Tehran.

DEBKAfile's Middle East sources report: This commentary, which would necessarily have been approved at the top level of Egyptian government, by President Hosni Mubarak or intelligence minister Gen. Omar Suleiman, appeared the day after Mubarak deliberately absented himself from a summit meeting with Syrian president Bashar Assad in Riyadh called by King Abdullah.

By failing to turn up for the meeting of Friday, Jan. 15, and running al Ahram's Dagan commentary the next day, the Egyptian ruler signaled his refusal to be a part of the Saudi monarch's policy of surrendering to Iran's hegemonic role in regional affairs, and his belief that Israel and its Mossad were still capable of putting a spoke in Iran's nuclear aspirations.

By his actions, Mubarak also distanced himself from Abdullah's plan to apply the Lebanese national unity formula to a joint Arab initiative for mending the Palestinian Hamas-Fatah feud. Assad's endorsement was seen by the Saudi monarch as attaching the Syrian-Iranian stamp of approval to a Palestinian power-sharing accord still to be negotiated. For DEBKAfile's Special Report on the Riyadh fiasco, click

HERE

The Egyptian al-Ahram explains that Dagan earned the epithet "Superman of the Jewish state" by shunning media exposure and by virtue of the painful blows his covert operations inflicted on Iran. He is credited with putting its Iran's nuclear program well behind schedule by several years.

The paper assigns him a possible role in stirring up opposition unrest in Tehran in the six months since Iran's dubious presidential election, as well in the Iranian nuclear scientist's assassination on Jan. 11. Dagan is also described as aiding the international campaign against Tehran by damaging leaks to world media for blackening the Islamic regime, its leaders and its methods.

In Syria, says al-Ahram, Dagan succeeded in scaling down Syria's military capabilities, notably by masterminding the destruction in Sept. 2007 of the North Korean plutonium plant under construction at Deir ez-Zor in northern Syria.

In other words, were it not for Dagan and his audacious exploits, the Middle East might be a different place today with Iran and Syria the unchallenged regional superpowers, says the Egyptian newspaper.

Meir Dagan, 65, was first appointed Mossad director in 2002 by Ariel Sharon. His term of office has been extended twice by Ehud Olmert and Binyamin Netanyahu, Sharon's two successors as prime minister.

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LastGeneration: No deal reached on Iran sanctions

NEWS MIDDLE EAST

No deal reached on Iran sanctions

Iran insists its programme is for peaceful purposes [AFP]

Diplomats from six key powers have failed to decide on new sanctions against Iran.

Officials from the US, Russia China, Britain, France and Germany considered in their meeting at the European Union headquarters in New York on Saturday new possible sanctions against Iran over its nuclear programme, but no decision was reached.

"It is inconclusive in a sense that we didn't make any decisions right away." Sergei Ryabkov, the Russian deputy foreign minister, said after the meeting.

Russia believes there is "still time for meaningful political engagement and efforts to find a solution." Ryabkov said.

After weeks of conflicting responses, Manochehr Mottaki, Iran's foreign minister, accepted the uranium-for-nuclear fuel exchange proposal last December "in principle."

But in a likely deal breaker, he spoke of exchanging the material in phases rather than all at once as called for in the plan.

China opposition

Hillary Clinton, the US secretary of state, said on Monday that the Obama administration believes that pressuring Iran to come clean on its nuclear ambitions is to impose new sanctions aimed at the country's ruling elite.

William Burns, the US under-secretary of state, who also attended Saturday's talks, warned ahead of the meeting that Iran would face consequences if it does not comply with the international proposal to limit its uranium enrichment programme.

However, Russia, and China that was only represented by a lower-level diplomat, are two countries who are sceptical of any new sanctions.

Zhang Yesuim, China's UN ambassador, said Beijing opposes new sanctions against Iran for now because diplomatic efforts to bridge differences over the country's nuclear programme are taking place.

China, which relies on Iran for much of its energy needs, is a veto-wielding member of the security council along with the US, Russia, Britain and France.

Opposition from Zhang, who took over the rotating presidency of the UN security council in early January, means the council almost certainly won't discuss Iran sanctions in January, but whether they may be open to future sanctions talks remains to be seen.

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This material was brought to you by Broadcast(B.C.)Christianity. Last Call Digest, is a ministry of Michael James Stone, volunteers, and people dedicated to the Love of God and Salvation of Souls. It is an aggragate of Christian Material selected to Bless you and Prepare you for each and every day you read them. May God Bless You as You Do!! Reading these Devotions will help you to prepare daily for life, living, and your Lord. You will hear God Speak To You thru them.  Jesus  is Coming Very Soon.

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The material is being made available in an effort to understand scripture, news, technology and society especially as it relates to God and Jesus. It is specifically for non-profit research and educational purposes only. I believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use,' you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. This is a completely non-commercial site for private personal use. No fee is charged, and no money is made off of the operation of this site. Nor is any implied reciprocal gratuities implied or construed.

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This material was brought to you by Broadcast(B.C.)Christianity. Last Call Digest, is a ministry of Michael James Stone, volunteers, and people dedicated to the Love of God and Salvation of Souls. It is an aggragate of Christian Material selected to Bless you and Prepare you for each and every day you read them. May God Bless You as You Do!! Reading these Devotions will help you to prepare daily for life, living, and your Lord. You will hear God Speak To You thru them.  Jesus  is Coming Very Soon.

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LastGeneration: Gematria -CARM

Gematria

Gematria is the study of the numeric equivalents of Hebrew and Greek letters in order to find hidden meanings in the words. In both Hebrew and Greek (the languages in which the Bible was written), there are only alpha characters. There are no numeric characters. Therefore, when a Hebrew would want to write a number, he would use the corresponding Hebrew letter.

Various numbers are supposed to have spiritual meanings. Here are a few examples:

·        4 is the number of creation (the earth mentioned on the fourth clause of the Lord's Prayer; North, East, South, West; four corners of the earth)

·        5 is the number of grace

·        6 is the number of man (man was created on the 6th day; the sixth commandment says "Thou shall not murder)

·        7 is the number of spiritual perfection

·        8 is the number of new beginnings (eight people on Noah's Ark; baby is circumcised on the 8th day; Jesus rose on the first day (8th) of the week)

·        9 is the number of judgment

·        39 is the number of mercy

·        40 of testing and judgment

·        666 is the number of the antichrist, the numeric value of his name in Greek equivalent gematria.

There are some amazing numeric patterns found in the Bible.

·        "There are 21 Old Testament writers whose names appear in the Bible (3 x 7). The numeric value of their names is divisible by seven. Of these 21, seven are named in the New Testament: Moses, David, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Hosea and Joel. The numeric values of these names is 1554 (222 x 7). David's name is found 1134 times (162 x 7)." (www.wordworx.co.nz/panin.html)

·        The gematria of the name "Jesus" in Greek results in 888. In John 21:11, after the resurrection the disciples caught 153 fish. The word "fish" in Greek is 'ixthus' which has a numerical equivalent of 1224, or 8 x 153. Also, 153 people received a blessing from Jesus in the four gospels (not counting the 5000 and examples like that).

·        The Greek word for "law" is nomos which has a gematria of 430. Paul says that the Law came 430 years after Abraham went to Egypt (Gal. 3:17). The Jews were in Egypt 430 yeas and after being freed, they received the Law of Moses (Exodus 12:40).

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This material was brought to you by Broadcast(B.C.)Christianity. Last Call Digest, is a ministry of Michael James Stone, volunteers, and people dedicated to the Love of God and Salvation of Souls. It is an aggragate of Christian Material selected to Bless you and Prepare you for each and every day you read them. May God Bless You as You Do!! Reading these Devotions will help you to prepare daily for life, living, and your Lord. You will hear God Speak To You thru them.  Jesus  is Coming Very Soon.

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LastGeneration: NUMBERS, TYPICAL AND IMPORTANT -Jewish Virtual Library

NUMBERS, TYPICAL AND IMPORTANT


Biblical numbers are primarily based on the decimal system, which is of Hamito-Egyptian origin. The sexagesimal system, however, which ultimately derives from Sumerian usage, also plays an important role in Scripture, and since 60 is divisible by ten and five, the two methods of reckoning easily coalesce. The numbers in the Bible range from one (Gen. 1:5) to 100,000,000 (Dan. 7:10), though the latter figure is to be regarded as a hyperbole rather than a literal numerical expression. The largest number to be understood literally is that given in I Chronicles 21:5 in connection with David's census: 1,100,000 men from Israel plus 470,000 from Judah that drew the sword (but cf. the smaller figures in II Sam. 24:9). The idea of infinity in the mathematical sense (in contrast to the theological concept of God's unlimited powers) is not found in the Bible. However, it is recognized that there are limits to the human ability to count (Gen. 13:16; 41:49).

Biblical Arithmetic

The Israelites in biblical times did not take a special interest in mathematics. Their knowledge was confined, it seems, to their essential needs and was based on Egyptian and Babylonian methods of calculation. The four basic arithmetical operations are represented in the Bible, but only the results – not the method of calculating – are given. Thus there are examples of simple addition (Num. 11:26), subtraction (Gen. 18:28–33), multiplication (Lev. 25:8; Num. 7:84–86), and division (Num. 31:27). More complicated operations, involving "the rule of three," are exemplified in Leviticus 25:50ff.; 27:18, 23. The Hebrews also had an elementary control of fractions, but they seem to have avoided, as did other peoples of antiquity, the problem of converting mixed fractions to a common denominator. The biblical use of complementary fractions (i.e., fractions in which the numerator is one less than the denominator, e.g., 2/3, II Kings 11:7; 4/5, Gen. 47:24; 9/10, Neh. 11:1) shows Egyptian and Mesopotamian influence. Of particular interest is the use of certain parts of the body to express fractions or multiplication, e.g., yad, "hand" (fractions: ibid.; multiplication: Gen. 43:34); regel, "foot" or "times" (multiplication: Num. 22:28); pi, "mouth" (fraction: Zech. 13:8; multiplication: Deut. 21:17, according to many exegetes). The term pi shenayim originally meant two-thirds but subsequently came to signify "twice as much" (II Kings 2:9). The latter is the meaning it always has in the Mishnah and Talmud. In Deuteronomy 21:17 the sense is uncertain: the expression could mean either two-thirds of the inheritance or a double portion. Rosh, "head," frequently occurs in the sense of "sum, total" (Ex. 30:12; Num. 1:2), or "capital" (Lev. 5:24). The curious psychological approach that enables yad, for example, to serve both for division and multiplication is also reflected in the use of certain denominative verbs (in the pi'el) derived from numbers. Thus shillesh denotes "to divide into three" (Deut. 19:3) and "to repeat an action three times" (I Kings 18:34). The value of π was taken to be 3 (I Kings 7:23). Even the Mishnah in Eruvin 1:5 retains this approximate value, but Mishnat ha-Middot (second century) estimates π as 22/7.

Method of Expression

Biblical numbers are expressed by words denoting units, tens, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, 10,000, 20,000, and by combinations of these. There is no real evidence of the use of arithmetical symbols either in Scripture or in monumental inscriptions of the biblical period, like the *Siloam Inscription (c. 700); cf. also the *Mesha Stele of the ninth century. However, the use of figures in everyday documents, chiefly for small numbers, is demonstrated by the *Samaria ostraca (eighth century), where both words and figures are employed for numerals. The *Lachish Letters (sixth century) likewise contain numerical symbols. But, whereas these figures appear to be based on Egyptian models, other Samarian inscriptions display symbols that correspond to the Phoenician-Aramaic tradition. The *Elephantine papyri (fifth century) also use arithmetical signs (chiefly vertical strokes for units and horizontal lines for tens). In later times (the Hasmonean period and throughout the talmudic age), following the Greek example, the letters of the alphabet were given numerical values. The letters alef to tet represent the digits one to nine; yod to ẓade, the tens to 90; and kaf to tav 100 to 400; thousands are expressed by the letters for units with two dots above. The system eventually gave rise to the numerological method called *gematria, which R. Eliezer b. R. Yose made the 29th of his 32 hermeneutical rules, and examples of which are to be found already in the New Testament (Rev. 13:18), as well as in the Talmud and Midrash; while the kabbalists went to fantastic lengths in the application of this exegetical device. In modern times, G.R. Driver has revived the idea that even in the Bible, numbers are occasionally indicated by the first letter of their name (acrophonic system) or by the numerical value of letters of the alphabet. Thus the number 318 in Genesis 14:14 represents רזעילא (Eliezer) (cf. Gen. R. 43:2, and the Epistle of Barnabas).

Symbolic and Rhetorical Use

Biblical numbers are not always intended to be taken at their face value. They are often used indefinitely – as round figures – or rhetorically, for emphasis or in a hyperbolic sense. At times the rhetorical effect is achieved through a latent number, i.e., certain words or names occur a given number of times, although the actual figure is not specified. Many numbers are noteworthy for their symbolic nuances. Hebrew literature is not altogether unique in this regard; analogues are to be found in Egyptian, Sumerian, Akkadian, Canaanite, and Hittite writings. Ugaritic, in particular, provides many examples of the rhetorical and symbolic use of numbers. Especially significant is the biblical use of sacred numbers, which play an important religious role. There is, in addition, a distinct tendency in Scripture to achieve numerical harmony or symmetry. This aspect has been worked out in considerable detail for Genesis, notably its early chapters, by U. Cassuto (see bibliography).

ONE

One is sometimes used as the indefinite article (I Sam. 24:14), and often as an indefinite pronoun, "someone, anyone, a certain man" (II Kings 4:39). Though a cardinal number, it is also used as an ordinal (Gen. 1:5; 8:5, 13; Ruth 1:4). It also signifies uniqueness and indivisibility. Hence it is expressive of the unity of marriage (Gen. 2:24) and of the doctrine of monotheism (Deut. 6:4).

TWO

The fact that various organs and limbs of the body occur in pairs (eyes, hands, etc.) invested the number two with a certain importance. The animals entered the ark in pairs; the Decalogue was inscribed on two tablets of stone. Often two sacrifices were ordained (Lev. 14:22). The fraction one-half is also common in the Bible: the half-tribe of Manasseh (Num. 32:33) and the half-shekel (Ex. 30:13). The Hebrew preference for the concrete to the abstract finds expression, inter alia, in the idiomatic use of two for "a few" (Num. 9:22; I Kings 17:12). Sometimes "three" is added to emphasize the approximate character of the number (II Kings 9:32; Job 33:29; Isa. 17:6). Mention may also be made here of the idiom temol shilshom, "hitherto" (literally: 'yesterday, the third day back'). A not uncommon device for achieving emphasis is the repetition (latent two) of a word or phrase (I Kings 13:2; Isa. 43:25).

THREE

Three is a very common biblical number. At times it is difficult to tell whether it is used with precision or as a small round number (Gen. 30:36; Ex. 2:2); but the addition of the next high number establishes its approximate character (Ex. 20:5; Jer. 36:23). Of special importance is its use in sacred contexts. It conveys the idea of completeness, having a beginning, middle, and end. Even in remote antiquity the pagan peoples worshiped triads of gods (in Babylonia: Anu, Bel, and Ea; in Egypt: Isis, Osiris, and Horus). The universe was divided into heaven, earth, and the abyss (or the netherworld), which the three deities represented. The family group of father, mother, and child, without doubt, also contributed to the significance of the number. In the Bible three has various religious associations: a three-year old (or third-born) sacrifice in Genesis 15:9; three feasts (Ex. 23:14); for three years the fruit of a newly planted tree was forbidden (Lev. 19:23); ritual purification on the third day (Num. 19:12; 31:19); Daniel kneeled and prayed three times a day (Dan. 6:11). The following occurrences of three are also of interest: In Genesis 40, three has symbolic significance. It exercises a mystic power in the story of Elijah's revival of the child (I Kings 17:21). Three cities of refuge are mentioned in Deuteronomy 19:7, 9. Three daughters (plus seven sons) seem to be an ideal number (Job 1:2; 42:13). Three is latent in a number of passages where it expresses a complete and perfect number or is used for emphasis. The expression "and God blessed" occurs, for example, three times in Genesis 1:22, 28; 2:3. The Sanctuary has three divisions: a court, a holy place, and a Holy of Holies (Ex. 26:33; 27:9; I Kings 6:16–17). In Aaron's benediction (Num. 6:24–26) the Tetragrammaton occurs thrice, and three pairs of blessings are pronounced. On the other hand, the trisagion in Isaiah 6:3 is a form of superlative (in the Qumran scroll, 1QIsa, "holy" is found only twice); while the occurrence of "temple of the Lord" three times in Jeremiah 7:4 merely lends emphasis to the prophet's mocking rebuke.

FOUR

The importance of the number four is probably derived from the four cardinal points of the compass (some scholars point to the square). It is regarded as sacred in various parts of the world, and signifies completeness and sufficiency. Four rivers issued from the Garden of Eden (Gen. 2:10). Jephthah's daughter was lamented annually for four days (Judg. 11:40). In Jeremiah 15:2 the people is divided into four groups, each subjected to a different type of disaster; in the next verse the category of "the sword" is itself divided into four phases. There are four winds; four quarters of heaven (Jer. 49:36); four sore judgments (Ezek. 14:21); and four horns that scatter Judah (Zech. 2:1 [1:18]). The number four frequently occurs in the measurements of the furniture of the Tabernacle (Ex. 25ff.; 36ff.) and of the Temple (I Kings 7). The bearers of God's throne are four (Ezek. 1, 10), and four chariots issue from two mountains (Zech. 6:1–8). Multiples of four are discernible in the length of the Tabernacle curtains – 28 cubits (Ex. 26:2); in the large round number 400 (Gen. 15:13; Judg. 21:12), and in the still larger figure of 400,000 (Judg. 20:2, 17; II Chron. 13:3).

FIVE

Five probably means simply "a few" in II Kings 7:13, perhaps also in Genesis 43:34; 47:2 (cf. Er. 6:6, 8). Five as a basic number goes back to remote antiquity. There was a primitive Hamitic system based on the number five before the decimal system. It is obviously derived from the fingers of the hand used by early man in his simple calculations. In the Bible, five is related to both the decimal and sexagesimal systems. It is a feature of sacred architecture (I Kings 7:39, 49). It is also found in connection with penalties (Ex. 21:37), redemption (Num. 3:47; 18:16), and gifts (Gen. 43:34; 45:22). The fraction one-fifth is likewise common (Lev. 5:16; 22:14). It is often used as a small round number (Lev. 26:8; I Sam. 17:40; Isa. 19:18). For the multiple 50 see below. Other multiples up to 500,000 occur frequently (Gen. 5:32; Ex. 30:23–24; II Chron. 13:17, et al.).

SIX

Six is part of the sexagesimal system but has little symbolic value. Examples of its occurrence are: the working days of the week (Ex. 20:9); the maximum years of servitude for a Hebrew slave (Ex. 21:2); the steps of Solomon's throne (I Kings 10:19–20); the wings of the seraphim (Isa. 6:2); the six-cubit measuring reed of Ezekiel's vision (Ezek. 40:5; 41:8).

SEVEN

Seven played an exceptionally important role in antiquity. It was sacred to Semitic and other peoples, including the Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, and the Vedic folk in India. Its importance is often derived from the worship of the seven heavenly bodies: the sun, moon, and the five planets. It is also pointed out that the seven-day week was approximately a quarter of the lunar month (29½ days), and that the Pleiades (Amos 5:8) were thought to comprise seven stars. Others see the origin of the number's prominence in the fact that it is composed of the sacred numbers three and four, or in the "unrelated" character of seven in the series one to ten. Like the Sumerians, the biblical writers often add seven to a large number to indicate a very big figure. U. Cassuto writes: "It clearly follows that the chronology of the Book of Genesis as a whole is also founded on the dual principle of the sexagesimal system and the addition of seven" (From Adam to Noah, in bibl., 259). In the Bible the number seven is connected with every aspect of religious life in every period: e.g., the clean beasts in the ark (Gen. 7:2ff.); Abraham's covenant with Abimelech (Gen. 21:28–30); cleansing from leprosy (Lev. 14); the festivals (Lev. 23; Deut. 16:9); Balaam's altars (Num. 23); the induction of the priests and the consecration of the altars (Ex. 29:35–37); sacrifices (Gen. 8:20; Num. 28:11; Job 42:8; I Chron. 15:26); the Temple furnishings (I Kings 7:17); the menorah (Ex. 25:31–37; Zech. 4:2); the Temple steps (Ezek. 40:22); the width of the Temple entrance (Ezek. 41:3); the sprinkling of blood (Lev. 4:6, 17;16:14; Num. 19:4) and the like. The innate, mystic power of seven is exemplified in Joshua 6:4, 8, 13 (Jericho); Judges 16:13, 19 (Samson); and II Kings 5:10 (Naaman). It also occurs in connection with punishment (Gen. 4:24; Lev. 26:18; Deut. 28:7, 25; II Sam. 21:6; Prov. 6:31; Dan. 4:13, 20, 29; 9:27). In relation to time, seven represents a fitting (or sacred) period (Gen. 1:3ff.; 8:12; 50:10; Ex. 7:25; Lev. 8:33; Josh. 6). More generally it indicates a complete or round number of moderate size (Isa. 4:1; 11:15; Micah 5:4; Ps. 12:7 [6]; Prov. 26:16, 25; Job 1:2; Esth. 1:10; 2:9). In Deuteronomy 7:1 it is equated with "many." Other interesting references are: Genesis 29:20, 27, 30 and Judges 14:12, 17 (marriage); Ezekiel 9:2 (angels); II Kings 4:35 (sneezes of revival); Genesis 41; II Kings 8:1 (famine and plenty); Genesis 33:3 (prostrations; parallels are found in the Tell El-Amarna Letters and in Ugaritic writings). Multiples of seven bear the same character with added emphasis (Lev. 12:5; Num. 29:13; I Kings 8:65). For 70 see below. The half of seven, three and a half, also has special significance. "Times, time, and half a time" occurs in Daniel 7:25 and 12:7. "Half of the week" in Daniel 9:27 is explained by CH Cornill to mean 3½ years and to have its origin in the 3½ years of Antiochus' persecution. H. Gunkel, however, traces the expression to Babylonia (half Kislev, Tevet, Shevat, and Adar), the references being to the 3½ months between the winter solstice and the festival of Marduk, i.e., the period of the supremacy of Tiamat.

EIGHT AND NINE

The numbers eight and nine do not appear to have any intrinsic symbolic import. Their significance seems to be related to seven and ten, respectively. The eighth day of circumcision (Gen. 17:12), of the consecration of first-born beasts (Ex. 22:29), of the sacrifices of the defiled Nazirite (Num. 6:10), and of the holy convocation (Lev. 23:36) is simply the day after the important period of seven days. Noteworthy, however, is Ezekiel's predilection for the number eight in the Temple structure (Ezek. 40:9, 31, 34, 37). Nine is at times significant insofar as it is one less than the important number ten (Neh. 11:1).

TEN

Like five, ten is clearly derived from the use of the fingers in counting (the Sefirot, it may be noted, emanate from the fingers according to Sefer Yeẓirah) and is the basis of the numeral system chiefly, though not solely, used in the Bible. It expresses completeness and perfection (Gen. 24:10, 22; Josh. 22:14; Judg. 17:10; II Kings 20:9–11; Jer. 41:8; Job 19:3). Its sacred character, which may derive from the fact that it is the product of three and seven (both sacred numbers), is exemplified in the Decalogue (Ex. 20:2ff.), where it may also serve as a mnemonic; the tithes (Gen. 14:20; Num. 18:21, 26; Deut. 26:12); the Tabernacle and Temple furnishings, including multiples of ten (Ex. 26; I Kings 6–7; Ezek. 45; II Chron. 4); and the minimum number of righteous men required to save Sodom. It also occurs in latent form: e.g., there are ten patriarchs from Adam to Noah (Gen. 5), and ten from Noah to Abraham (Gen. 11:10–27). It is stated that the Israelites put the Lord to test ten times (Num. 14:22). In ritual observances the fraction one-tenth occurs frequently (Num. 28).

TWELVE

The number 12 may have derived its importance from the division of the lunar year into 12 months, and from the 12 signs of the Zodiac. It should also be noted that it can be broken down into the significant numbers five (+) seven or three (×) four. But undoubtedly its divisibility and its role in the Sumerian sexagesimal system gave it a special status. In the Bible the fact that the tribes numbered 12 (Gen. 35:22; 42:13, 32; 49:28; Num. 1:44) endowed the number with special religious significance (cf. the Greek amphictyonies). To maintain the number 12, Ephraim and Manasseh were counted as two tribes when Levi was omitted. The tribes of Ishmael likewise numbered 12 (Gen. 17:20). Representative persons and objects often correspond to the number of the tribes (Ex. 24:4; 28:21; Lev. 24:5; Num. 7:3; 17:17, 21; Josh. 4:2; I Kings 10:20; 18:31; Ezek. 48:31ff.; Ezra 6:17; 8:35). Multiples of 12 are found in the 24 classes of priests and Levites (I Chron. 24:4; 25:31); the 48 levitical cities (Num. 35:7); the 24,000 men in the monthly courses that served King David (I Chron. 27:1–15). The male descendants of Adam listed in Genesis 4:1–26 numbered 12, and the verb yalad ("to bear") occurs there 12 times.

TWENTY

Twenty marks a distinctive period in human life. Isaac's sons were born 20 years after marriage (Gen. 25:20, 26). Also, the age for army service was 20 (Num. 1:3).

FORTY

Forty is an important round number, indicating a fairly long period. The length of a generation is approximately 40 years. A man reaches full adulthood at 40 (cf. Josh. 14:7; II Sam. 2:10). Isaac and Esau married at 40 (Gen. 25:20; 26:34). The complete span of human life is thrice 40 (Gen. 6:3; Deut. 34:7), while twice 40 represents advanced old age (II Sam. 19:33–36; Ps. 90:10). The Israelites wandered 40 years in the wilderness (Ex. 16:35; Deut. 2:7), in which time an entire generation died out (Num. 14:33; 32:13). In I Kings 6:1 (cf. I Chron. 5:29–36 [6:3–10]) 480 years represents 12 generations. At various periods the land had rest for 40 years (Judg. 3:11; 8:28; I Sam. 4:18; 80 years in Judg. 3:30 is the equivalent of two generations) and David, Solomon, and Joash reigned for 40 years (II Sam. 5:4; I Kings 2:11; 11:42; II Chron. 24:1). This was a sign of divine grace. It is noteworthy that, according to the Mesha Stele, Israel oppressed Moab for 40 years. Periods of special significance often consist of 40 days (Gen. 7:4, 12; 8:6; Ex. 24:18; 34:28; Num. 13:25; Deut. 9:9ff.; 10:10; I Sam. 17:16; I Kings 19:8; Ezek. 4:6; 29:11–13; Jonah 3:4). Other interesting examples of the occurrence of 40 are: 40 lashes (Deut. 25:3); sons (Judg. 12:14); camel loads (II Kings 8:9); shekels (Neh. 5:15); Temple measurements (Ezek. 41:2; 46:22). Forty thousand indicates a very large number (Josh. 4:13; Judg. 5:8; IISam. 10:18; I Chron. 12:37).

FIFTY

Fifty, a multiple of ten, occurs in measurements (Gen. 6:15; Ezek. 40:15); in compensation (Deut. 22:29); and in civil and military organization (Ex. 18:21; Deut. 1:15). Other multiples of ten, up to 500,000, are frequently encountered (Gen. 5:32; Ex 30:23–24; II Chron. 13:17).

SIXTY

Sixty, the basis of the sexagesimal system, is a heritage from the Sumerians, whose method of calculation has left its mark on the civilized world to this day. The division of the circle into 360 degrees, of an hour into 60 minutes, the minute into 60 seconds, and counting by the dozen and the gross are derived from this ancient people. The system originated, it is suggested, "in a mythical addition of zenith and nadir to the four points of the compass" (Mc-Gee). Although the biblical method of reckoning is based mainly on the decimal system, many scriptural (and likewise talmudic and midrashic) numbers show a sexagesimal structure. Thus the total ages of the patriarchs from Adam to Noah and their ages at the birth of the first son are either exact multiples of five or of five with the addition of seven (see Seven above), in accordance with a stylistic Sumerian usage. All the ages in Genesis 5 are to be analysed in the same way, as U. Cassuto has shown in his commentaries to Genesis (see bibl.). The sexagesimal method of calculation applies to other parts of the Bible, too.

SEVENTY

Seventy (the product of two sacred numbers, seven times ten) is used as a round figure, with symbolic or sacred nuances. It occurs in various contexts; it is the number of the family of Jacob that went down to Egypt (Ex. 1:5; Deut. 10:22); of the palm trees at Elim; of the elders that went up with Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu (Ex. 24:9); of the elders set round about the Tent (Num. 11:24); of the years that the nations will serve the king of Babylon (Jer. 25:11ff.); and of the weeks mentioned in Daniel 9:24ff. The nations enumerated in Genesis 10 total 70 (or 71, or 72, according to others); cf. also the 77-fold of Lamech's vengeance (Gen. 4:24). In Ugaritic literature 70 funerary offerings for Baal are mentioned, and the gods are referred to as "the 70 children of Asherah."

A THOUSAND

A thousand and its multiples are frequently used in the Bible as round numbers indicating a large amount. Etymologically the Hebrew word elef ("thousand") denotes "a crowd," and hence at times has the sense of "tribe," "clan," or designates a military unit, which does not necessarily comprise 1,000 (Ex. 18:21; Deut. 33:17; Judg. 6:15). Flinders Petrie (Researches in Sinai), interpreting elef to mean a family or tent, reduced the figure for the first census to 5,500, and to 5,730 for the second. Multiples of 1,000 are often hyperbolic expressions (Lev. 26:8; Deut. 32:30; I Sam. 18:7; Ps. 3:7[6]; Song 5:10). Seventy thousand (II Sam. 24:15) and 1,000,000 (Dan. 7:10; I Chron. 21:5; 22:14; II Chron. 14:8) are globular figures indicative of a vast number, while "thousands of ten thousands" (Gen. 24:60) and "ten thousand times ten thousand" (Dan. 7:10) are imaginative numerical ultimates. Similarly high figures are found in Ugaritic literature.

Accuracy

The question of the accuracy of biblical numbers is an exegetical problem. There are actual contradictions within the Bible itself (cf. II Sam. 24:9 with I Chron. 21:5). The correctness of other figures is doubted on other grounds. Unquestionably, some excessively large numbers must be regarded as symbolic or hyperbolic figures. In certain cases critics suppose that estimates – especially of enemy forces – are only rough, and possibly exaggerated, guesses. However, errors in transmission and copying must be taken into account. Manuscripts generally show that they are particularly prone to corruption where numbers are concerned. In Hebrew a single letter could change five to 50, for example. It is interesting to note that one Hebrew Ms. of the Bible (no. 9 of Kennicott) reads in Numbers 1:23, 1,050 for 59,300 (MT); Numbers 2:6, 50 for 54,400; and in Numbers 2:16, 100 for 151,450. There are also considerable divergences between the Masoretic Text, the Septuagint, and the Samaritan versions. For example, the years between the Creation and the Flood are 1,656 in the Hebrew Bible, 2,262 in the Septuagint, and 1,307 in the Samaritan recension.

Ascending and Descending Numbers

The manner in which large numbers are arranged is subject to interesting variations: sometimes they are arranged in ascending order (Gen. 5:17), at other times in descending order (Gen. 23:1; Ex. 38:26), and occasionally a combination of both (Num. 3:43). The conventional explanation is that J, E, and D prefer the descending order, while P favors the ascending order. Cassuto, however, has argued that not a documentary criterion but a linguistic principle is operative here: "When the Bible gives us technical or statistical data and the like, it frequently prefers the ascending order, since the tendency to exactness in these instances causes the smaller numbers to be given precedence and prominence. On the other hand, when a solitary number occurs in a narrative passage or in a poem or in a speech and so forth, the numbers are invariably arranged, save in a few cases where special circumstances operate, according to the more natural and spontaneous order, to wit, the descending order" (The Documentary Hypothesis, in bibl., 52).

Numerical Harmony

Another question to which Cassuto has given special attention is that of numerical harmony. He demonstrates, for instance, that heptads repeatedly occur in Genesis 1:1–2:3, leaving no doubt that these literary variations on the theme of seven were carefully designed so as to achieve a harmony of numbers. "This numerical symmetry," he writes, "is, as it were, the golden thread that binds together all the parts of the section and serves as a convincing proof of its unity" (From Adam to Noah, in bibl., 15).

Graded Numbers

Another interesting feature of biblical style is the use of graded numbers. This consists of the collocation of two consecutive numbers for rhetorical purposes. The usage may be divided into three categories:

(a) In prose it expresses approximation and, as a rule, fewness, and has a colloquial character (II Kings 9:32; 13:19).

(b) In poetry the two numbers form a parallelism and also express inexactness (Micah 5:4; Job 5:19). A similar usage is found in Sumerian and Akkadian, and, especially, in Ugaritic epic poetry. Since numbers are involved, the parallelism cannot be expressed through synonyms, and consecutive numbers are the only alternative (cf. the parallelism between 1,000 and 10,000 in Ps. 91:17). A combination of the idiom for fewness and poetic parallelism is seen in Isaiah 17:6.

(c) In proverbial sayings a schematic device is employed in which two successive numbers are given of things that share a common characteristic, and the actual items subsequently enumerated conform to the second, i.e., the higher, number (Prov. 30:15–31). The use of numbers in Proverbs (including single numbers as in Prov. 30:15a) is intended as an aid to memory. In Amos 1:3–2:6, where three and four are repeatedly mentioned but only one example is cited, the prophet apparently uses surprise as a rhetorical factor.

Reviewing the facts adumbrated above, it appears that numbers are used in the Bible not solely for statistical or arithmetical purposes. They are also employed as stylistic devices to express symbolically the idea of completeness and perfection, to convey the concept of sanctity, to provide mnemonics, and are often arranged so as to give numerical symmetry or harmony to a passage. They are used both expressly and latently to emphasize the leading thought of a text, and thus often establish its intrinsic unity. The rhetorical uses of numbers in Scripture unquestionably constitute a highly valuable aid to biblical exegesis. Furthermore, the biblical approach to numbers strongly influenced the thinking of later ages. Philo and other Hellenistic writers, the Apocryphal literature, the New Testament, the Talm

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LastGeneration: GENERATION, LENGTH OF: -Jewish Encyclopedia

GENERATION, LENGTH OF:    (print this article)   

 

By : ExecutiveCommittee of the EditorialBoard.  JosephJacobs   

The number of years that elapse before the children of one set of human beings arrive at a marriageable age. This number has been defined to be equal to the average male age at marriage, plus one year before child-bearing begins, plus half the average number of years during which fecundity lasts.

As a rule, Jews marry much earlier than the rest of the male population among which they dwell, probably owing to the rabbinic requirement that a man should marry before attaining the age of twenty (Ḳid. 29b).

On the other hand, their fecundity is greater; therefore the time of fertility of the female is longer; but exact figures concerning this detail are not available. From such data as are obtainable it appears that Jews marry at the age of twenty-two,

as compared with twenty-nine for the rest of the population (Mayo-Smith, "Science of Statistics," i. 103); while fertility lasts, on an average, for fourteen years after marriage, as compared with twelve among non-Jews (ib.113).

This would give the length of agenerationamong Jews as thirty years,

as compared with thirty-six in the remaining population.

The difference does not appear to be large, but its effect on the increase of population is cumulative and increases in geometrical progression, the modulus being 1.2, causing the Jewish population in four generations to become double that of the unit rate. Another consequence of the less length of generations among Jews is the proportionately larger number living simultaneously, and, as a result, the greater opportunity for, and superior strength of, tradition among them.

Bibliography:Rümelin, Reden, i.Tübingen, 1875; 
F. Galton, Human Faculty, App. F., London, 1883.E.

Read more:http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=136&letter=G&search=generation#ixzz0coHK7zcX

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This material was brought to you by Broadcast(B.C.)Christianity. Last Call Digest, is a ministry of Michael James Stone, volunteers, and people dedicated to the Love of God and Salvation of Souls. It is an aggragate of Christian Material selected to Bless you and Prepare you for each and every day you read them. May God Bless You as You Do!! Reading these Devotions will help you to prepare daily for life, living, and your Lord. You will hear God Speak To You thru them.  Jesus  is Coming Very Soon.

Last Generation (Gen 2012)

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This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner.
The material is being made available in an effort to understand scripture, news, technology and society especially as it relates to God and Jesus. It is specifically for non-profit research and educational purposes only. I believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use,' you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. This is a completely non-commercial site for private personal use. No fee is charged, and no money is made off of the operation of this site. Nor is any implied reciprocal gratuities implied or construed.

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LastGeneration: How long is a generation? -Blogger Archive

How long is a generation?

Yes, indeed. How long is a generation? We shall look at 4 verses taken from the Word of God, which is the truth and light in a world of darkness.


40 years - Numbers 32:13 "So the LORD'S anger burned against Israel, and He made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until the entire generation of those who had done evil in the sight of the LORD was destroyed.


70 years - Psalm 90:10 As for the days of our life, they contain seventy years, or if due to strength, eighty years, yet their pride is but labor and sorrow; for soon it is gone and we fly away.


120 years - Genesis 6:3 Then the Lord said, "My spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he is also flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.

100 years - Genesis 15:12-16 "Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and mistreated four hundred years. But I will punish the nation they serve as slaves, and afterward they will come out with great possessions. You, however, will go to your fathers in peace and be buried at a good old age. In the fourth generation your descendants will come back here, for the sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its full measure."

Considering the above passage, a generation is 100 years as it writes the 301th year as the starting of the fourth generation. If this is not the case, the word 'fourth' would not be used...

In my previous post, I mentioned that the generation that saw Israel returned to their homeland will not pass away until everything is fulfilled. Israel came back in 1948, but they officially became a nation in 1967. From this, we can take either 1948 or 1967 and add the years to it. Either case, 1948 plus 100 is 2048. 1967 plus 100 is 2067. I am not saying that Christ would return exactly in one of these years. Nowadays, people are living longer. More men and women are living into their 90s. So we can never be certain how long a generation is. But we can be sure of one thing: Our generation has more reason to believe He could return during our lifetime than any generation preceding us. Hope you understand me. =)

Anonymous said...

As a new christian this concerns me. How am I to reconcile the contradiction that is presented?
Psalms and Genesis 6:3 directly refer to life expectancy or days on earth not generations.
This leaves Numbers 32:13 and Genesis 15:12-16 as the direct references to generations.
If I read numbers 32:13 it works nicely with both Psalms and Genesis 6:3 however makes Genesis 15:12-16 false
If I read Genesis 15:12-16 it leaves psalms false, and Numbers false and leaves only Genesis 6:3 as plausibly true.
Either way I cut it I'm stuck with the problem that they cannot all be right at the same time??.
Or can they??

Anonymous said...

I believe that 100 years is a generation... my reason is that it actually says the 4th generation. unlike the others. the others just tell the life expectancy during that time

Anonymous said...

We have to remember that "With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance."(2 Peter 3:8-9) 

We may be able to get a general time frame. But only God knows the day and the hour that the end will come. The most important thing is to be prepared and remain close to Christ.

Anonymous said...

If you read Matt. 1:17, you find from Abraham to Christ is 42 generations total of 2160 years. 
So 2160 % 42 = 51.4 years.
Also Luke 3:23-38 there are 77 generations from Adam to Christ. So 4000 years % 77 = 51.9 years.
Now take the generation that saw Israel take control 
of Jerusalem in the six day war June 5-10 1967 and add 51.4 or 51.9 years = fall of 2018 to spring 2019 minus 7 year tribulation = 2011. But keep in mind no one knows the day or hour of the RAPTURE!!! It's so near, ARE YOU READY? IT COULD HAPPEN TONIGHT!!

(Editors note: Does anyone use a Jewish Calendar anymore? (smile))

Prophecy Digest

This material was brought to you by Broadcast(B.C.)Christianity. Last Call Digest, is a ministry of Michael James Stone, volunteers, and people dedicated to the Love of God and Salvation of Souls. It is an aggragate of Christian Material selected to Bless you and Prepare you for each and every day you read them. May God Bless You as You Do!! Reading these Devotions will help you to prepare daily for life, living, and your Lord. You will hear God Speak To You thru them.  Jesus  is Coming Very Soon.

Last Generation (Gen 2012)

Broadcast(B.C.)Christianity, operates by you, with you, and for you. “Freely you have received, freely give”  Pass this on, everywhere you can, anytime you can, anyway you can. You will be blessed if you do.  ProphecyDigest@michaeljamesstone.com

#Not All Prophecy Teachers are accurate, Prove all things, and always question everything.

Fair Use Notice

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, any copyrighted work herein is archived under fair use without profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in reviewing the included information for personal use, non-profit research and educational purposes only.

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner.
The material is being made available in an effort to understand scripture, news, technology and society especially as it relates to God and Jesus. It is specifically for non-profit research and educational purposes only. I believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use,' you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. This is a completely non-commercial site for private personal use. No fee is charged, and no money is made off of the operation of this site. Nor is any implied reciprocal gratuities implied or construed.

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