Passover(24): Passover Exodus 5 -John Gill

Passover(24): Passover Exodus 5 -John Gill

John Gill's

Exodus 12:34

Ver. 34. And the people took their dough before it was leavened,.... They had that evening mixed their flour with water, and made it into dough, but had put no leaven into it; and the Egyptians being so very earnest to have them gone, they stayed not to put any leaven into it:

[but] their kneadingtroughs, or rather "their dough",

being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders; for it is not likely that their troughs should be wrapped up in the skirts of their garments; but their dough might, if their clothes were like the hykes of the Arabs now, as Dr. Shaw {z} thinks they were, and which are pretty much like the plaids of the Scotch, and which are large enough for such a purpose; as even the veil which Ruth wore held six measures of barley, Ru 3:15 and so these clothes of theirs, like the Arabs' hykes, and the Scotch plaids, might be so made, that large lumps of dough being bound up in them might be thrown over their shoulders, and so carried by them when they journeyed.

{z} Travels, p. 224, 225. Edit. 2.


Exodus 12:35

Ver. 35. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses,.... Ex 3:22

and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment; or "they asked" {a} them of the Egyptians to give them them, which they readily did to get rid of them; for upon their being urgent with the Israelites to be gone in haste, they might reply, that they were not provided with things suitable for a journey, and therefore requested such things of them, which they at once freely consented to; See Gill on "Ex 3:22",
See Gill on "Ex 11:2",
See Gill on "Ex 11:3".

{a} wlavyw "et postulaverunt", Pagninus, Montanus, Vatablus; "petierunt", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator.


Exodus 12:36

Ver. 36. And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians,.... Their minds were disposed towards them, and their hearts were inclined to grant their request, and did grant it:

so they lent unto them: such things as they required; or "they gave unto them" {b}; made presents of them freely to them; and so Josephus says {c}, that they honoured them with gifts:

and they spoiled the Egyptians; stripped them of their substance and riches, of their most valuable things; in doing which they were in no wise criminal, since they did it by the direction and authority of God, who has a right to dispose of all the things in the world; and to take of them from one, and give to another, as he pleases; nor was any injustice done to the Egyptians, who owed all this, and perhaps abundantly more, to the Israelites, for the labour and service they had served them in for many years; besides, they were the avowed enemies of Israel, and the Lord had now put himself at the head of the armies of Israel, and was contending with them, and they with him, who should overcome; and this was doing no other than what, acceding to the law of nations, is lawful to be done in time of war; to spoil, plunder, and distress an enemy, in whatsoever way it can be done. And thus the promise made to Abraham, that his posterity should come out with great substance, was fulfilled, Ge 15:14. This circumstance is taken notice of by some Heathen writers, as Artapanus {d}; who says they borrowed many cups of the Egyptians, and not a little raiment, besides a great quantity of other treasure and riches; and so Ezekiel the tragedian {e} speaks of a vast deal of gold and silver, raiment, and other things, the Israelitish women had of the Egyptians at their departure, and who relates the history of Moses and the above plagues very agreeably to the sacred writings.

{b} Mwlavyw "ut petita darent", Tigurine version, "ut dederint", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator, Ainsworth, Cartwright. {c} Antiqu. l. 2. c. 14. sect. 6. {d} Apud Euseb. Praepar. Evangel. l. 9. c. 27. p. 436. {e} Apud Euseb. ib. c. 29. p. 443.


Exodus 12:37

Ver. 37. And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth,.... Rameses was a place in Goshen, or rather the land of Goshen, from whence the country was so called; See Gill on "Ge 47:11". The Targum of Jonathan takes it to be Pelusium, or Sin, now called Tinah, formerly the strength of Egypt, and which lay at the entrance of it, and says it was one hundred and thirty miles to Succoth; and Jarchi says one hundred and twenty. But the distance between these two places was not so great; for Succoth from Rameses it is computed was eight miles {f} only. The latter place is so called by anticipation; for it was now a desert, as Josephus {g} says, which he calls Latopolis, but had its name Succoth from the children of Israel pitching their tents there; for the word signifies tents or tabernacles. The number of the children of Israel when they came out of Egypt

were about six hundred thousand on foot, that were men, besides children; and which is confirmed by the account that Chaeremon {h} the Heathen gives, who makes the number of those drove out of Egypt, as he calls them, 250,000; and says that when they came to Pelusium, they found there 380,000 left there by Amenophis; which makes in all 630,000. And so Philo the Jew says {i}, they were above 600,000, besides old men, children, and women, that could not easily be numbered; and the word "about" will admit of it, since it may be used not to diminish, but to increase the number; and it is certain that in the second year after they were come out of Egypt, their number was 600,550 without the Levites, who were not numbered; and they that were numbered were such as were twenty years old and upward, and able to go forth to war, Nu 1:9 and such were those here, as Jarchi observes; so that if there were 600,000 men of twenty years old and upwards, able to bear arms, besides women, children, and old men, it may well be thought that in all there were no less than near two millions and a half; for, according to the ordinary proportion allowed in other nations of four to one between the number of the whole people in a nation, and those men fit to bear arms, that the number of the Israelites alone, of all ages and sexes which went out of Egypt along with Moses, will amount to 2,400,000 souls {j}; which was a prodigious increase of seventy persons in little more than two hundred years, and a most marvellous thing it was, that in so large a number of persons there was not one feeble among them, Ps 105:37.

{f} See Bunting's Travels, p. 81. {g} Ut supra, (antiqu. l. 2.) c. 15. sect. 1. {h} Apud Joseph. contr. Apion, l. 1. sect. 32. {i} De Vita Mosis, l. 1. p. 625. {j} Bp. of Clogher's Chronology of the Hebrew Bible, p. 271. See Judah Leon's Relation of Memorable Things, &c. p. 2.


Exodus 12:38

Ver. 38. And a mixed multitude went up also with them,.... Some of these were Egyptians, and some of other nations that had resided in Egypt, and who, on various accounts, might choose to go along with the children of Israel; some through intermarriages with them, being loath to part with their relations, see Le 20:10, others on account of religion, being proselytes of righteousness, and others through worldly interest, the land of Egypt being by the plagues a most desolate place; and such wonders being wrought for the children of Israel, they saw they were a people that were the favourites of heaven, and judged it safest and best and most for their interest to keep with them; the Targum of Jonathan computes the number of those to be two hundred and forty myriads:

and flocks and herds, [even] very much cattle; the greatest part of which must be supposed to belong to the children of Israel, whose cattle were not destroyed when those of the Egyptians were; and the rest might be the cattle of such who feared and regarded the word of God, and took their cattle into their houses at the time of the plague of hail, whereby they were preserved; and which might be an inducement to them to take their herds and their flocks, and go along with the children of Israel, see Ex 9:20.


Exodus 12:39

Ver. 39. And they baked unleavened cakes,.... While they were at Succoth; but since that was a desert place, where could they get ovens to bake them in? they might lay them upon coals, and by frequent turning them bake them, or under hot ashes, under a pan covered with hot embers and coals, on an hearth, in which way cakes and other things are now baked with us in many places: of the quick way of dressing cakes in the eastern countries, See Gill on "Ge 18:6" and some render the word, "cakes under ashes" {k} which were made

of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt; for it was not leavened; of the manner of their bringing it,
See Gill on "Ex 12:34", and the reason why it was not leavened follows:

because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry: to leaven their dough, in such haste did they go out from thence. When they are said to be "thrust out", it is not to be understood of force and compulsion used, or of any indecent and ill behaviour towards them; but of earnest entreaties and urgent persuasions to depart; though this no doubt gave rise to the stories told by Justin {l}, Tacitus {m}, and others, that they were drove and cast out of Egypt by force, because they were a filthy diseased people, infected with the scab, itch, and leprosy; whereas there was not a sick, unsound, infirm, and feeble person among them, as before observed:

neither had they prepared for themselves any victual; they had their flocks and their herds, out of which they could take for their use, and they had dough, though unleavened and unbaked; but they had nothing ready dressed; what remained of the passover lamb they were obliged to burn; they had nothing which was got by hunting or fishing, as the word {n} used signifies; neither venison nor fish, of the latter of which there was great plenty in Egypt.

{k} tge "subcineritios panes", V. L. "subcineritia", Samar,
egkrufiav, Sept. so Munster. {l} E Trogo, l. 36. c. 2. {m} Hist. l. 5. c. 3. Manetho apud Joseph. contr. Apion, l. 1. c. 15. & Chaeremon apud ib. c. 32. & Lysimachus apud ib. c. 34. {n} tdu"vox autem proprie significat aliquid venando captum", Piscator.


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